607.01401 Definitions. --As used in this act, unless the context otherwise requires, the term:
(1) "Articles of incorporation" includes original, amended, and restated articles of incorporation, articles of share exchange, and articles of merger, and all amendments thereto.
(2) "Authorized shares" means the shares of all classes a domestic or foreign corporation is authorized to issue.
(3) "Business day" means Monday through Friday, excluding any day a national banking association is not open for normal business transactions.
(4) "Conspicuous" means so written that a reasonable person against whom the writing is to operate should have noticed it. For example, printing in italics, boldface, or a contrasting color or typing in capitals or underlined is conspicuous.
(5) "Corporation" or "domestic corporation" means a corporation for profit, which is not a foreign corporation, incorporated under or subject to the provisions of this act.
(6) "Day" means a calendar day.
(7) "Deliver" or "delivery" means any method of delivery used in conventional commercial practice, including delivery by hand, mail, commercial delivery, and electronic transmission.
(8) "Distribution" means a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property (except its own shares) or incurrence of indebtedness by a corporation to or for the benefit of its shareholders in respect of any of its shares. A distribution may be in the form of a declaration or payment of a dividend; a purchase, redemption, or other acquisition of shares; a distribution of indebtedness; or otherwise.
(9) "Electronic transmission" or "electronically transmitted" means any process of communication not directly involving the physical transfer of paper that is suitable for the retention, retrieval, and reproduction of information by the recipient. For purposes of proxy voting in accordance with ss. 607.0721, 607.0722, and 607.0724, the term includes, but is not limited to, telegrams, cablegrams, telephone transmissions, and transmissions through the Internet.
(10) "Employee" includes an officer but not a director. A director may accept duties that make him or her also an employee.
(11) "Entity" includes corporation and foreign corporation; unincorporated association; business trust, estate, partnership, trust, and two or more persons having a joint or common economic interest; and state, United States, and foreign governments.
(12) "Foreign corporation" means a corporation for profit incorporated under laws other than the laws of this state.
(13) "Governmental subdivision" includes authority, county, district, and municipality.
(14) "Includes" denotes a partial definition.
(15) "Individual" includes the estate of an incompetent or deceased individual.
(16) "Insolvent" means the inability of a corporation to pay its debts as they become due in the usual course of its business.
(17) "Mail" means the United States mail, facsimile transmissions, and private mail carriers handling nationwide mail services.
(18) "Means" denotes an exhaustive definition.
(19) "Person" includes individual and entity.
(20) "Principal office" means the office (in or out of this state) where the principal executive offices of a domestic or foreign corporation are located as designated in the articles of incorporation or other initial filing until an annual report has been filed, and thereafter as designated in the annual report.
(21) "Proceeding" includes civil suit and criminal, administrative, and investigatory action.
(22) "Record date" means the date on which a corporation determines the identity of its shareholders and their share holdings for purposes of this act. The determination shall be made as of the close of the business on the record date unless another time is fixed.
(23) "Secretary" means the corporate officer to whom the board of directors has delegated responsibility under s. 607.08401 for custody of the minutes of the meetings of the board of directors and of the shareholders and for authenticating records of the corporation.
(24) "Shareholder" or "stockholder" means one who is a holder of record of shares in a corporation or the beneficial owner of shares to the extent of the rights granted by a nominee certificate on file with a corporation.
(25) "Shares" means the units into which the proprietary interests in a corporation are divided.
(26) "Sign" or "signature" means any symbol, manual, facsimile, conformed, or electronic signature adopted by a person with the intent to authenticate a document.
(27) "State," when referring to a part of the United States, includes a state and commonwealth (and their agencies and governmental subdivisions) and a territory and insular possession (and their agencies and governmental subdivisions) of the United States.
(28) "Subscriber" means a person who subscribes for shares in a corporation, whether before or after incorporation.
(29) "Treasury shares" means shares of a corporation that belong to the issuing corporation, which shares are authorized and issued shares that are not outstanding, are not canceled, and have not been restored to the status of authorized but unissued shares.
(30) "United States" includes district, authority, bureau, commission, department, and any other agency of the United States.
(31) "Voting group" means all shares of one or more classes or series that under the articles of incorporation or this act are entitled to vote and be counted together collectively on a matter at the meeting of shareholders. All shares entitled by the articles of incorporation or this act to vote generally on the matter are for that purpose a single voting group.
History. --s. 14, ch. 89-154; s. 137, ch. 90-179; s. 4, ch. 97-102; s. 4, ch. 97-230; s. 18, ch. 99-218; s. 1, ch. 2001-195.
Note. --Former s. 607.0140.
(1) Notice under this act must be in writing, unless oral notice is:
(a) Expressly authorized by the articles of incorporation or the bylaws, and
(b) Reasonable under the circumstances.
Notice by electronic transmission is written notice.
(2) Notice may be communicated in person; by telephone, voice mail (where oral notice is permitted), or other electronic means; or by mail or other method of delivery.
(3)(a) Written notice by a domestic or foreign corporation authorized to transact business in this state to its shareholder, if in a comprehensible form, is effective:
1. Upon deposit into the United States mail, if mailed postpaid and correctly addressed to the shareholder's address shown in the corporation's current record of shareholders; or
2. When electronically transmitted to the shareholder in a manner authorized by the shareholder.
(b) Unless otherwise provided in the articles of incorporation or bylaws, and without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to shareholders, any notice to shareholders given by the corporation under any provision of this chapter, the articles of incorporation, or the bylaws shall be effective if given by a single written notice to shareholders who share an address if consented to by the shareholders at that address to whom such notice is given. Any such consent shall be revocable by a shareholder by written notice to the corporation.
(c) Any shareholder who fails to object in writing to the corporation, within 60 days after having been given written notice by the corporation of its intention to send the single notice permitted under paragraph (b), shall be deemed to have consented to receiving such single written notice.
(d) This subsection shall not apply to s. 607.0620, s. 607.1402, or s. 607.1404.
(4) Written notice to a domestic or foreign corporation authorized to transact business in this state may be addressed:
(a) To its registered agent at its registered office; or
(b) To the corporation or its secretary at its principal office or electronic mail address as authorized and shown in its most recent annual report or, in the case of a corporation that has not yet delivered an annual report, in a domestic corporation's articles of incorporation or in a foreign corporation's application for certificate of authority.
(5) Except as provided in subsection (3) or elsewhere in this act, written notice, if in a comprehensible form, is effective at the earliest date of the following:
(a) When received;
(b) Five days after its deposit in the United States mail, if mailed postpaid and correctly addressed; or
(c) On the date shown on the return receipt, if sent by registered or certified mail, return receipt requested, and the receipt is signed by or on behalf of the addressee.
(6) Oral notice is effective when communicated if communicated directly to the person to be notified in a comprehensible manner.
(7) If this act prescribes notice requirements for particular circumstances, those requirements govern. If articles of incorporation or bylaws prescribe notice requirements not less stringent than the requirements of this section or other provisions of this act, those requirements govern.
History. --s. 15, ch. 89-154; s. 19, ch. 99-218; s. 5, ch. 2003-283.
History. --s. 16, ch. 89-154.
(1) The articles of incorporation must set forth:
(a) A corporate name for the corporation that satisfies the requirements of s. 607.0401;
(b) The street address of the initial principal office and, if different, the mailing address of the corporation;
(c) The number of shares the corporation is authorized to issue;
(d) If any preemptive rights are to be granted to shareholders, the provision therefor;
(e) The street address of the corporation's initial registered office and the name of its initial registered agent at that office together with a written acceptance as required in s. 607.0501(3); and
(f) The name and address of each incorporator.
(2) The articles of incorporation may set forth:
(a) The names and addresses of the individuals who are to serve as the initial directors;
(b) Provisions not inconsistent with law regarding:
1. The purpose or purposes for which the corporation is organized;
2. Managing the business and regulating the affairs of the corporation;
3. Defining, limiting, and regulating the powers of the corporation and its board of directors and shareholders;
4. A par value for authorized shares or classes of shares;
5. The imposition of personal liability on shareholders for the debts of the corporation to a specified extent and upon specified conditions; and
(c) Any provision that under this act is required or permitted to be set forth in the bylaws.
(3) The articles of incorporation need not set forth any of the corporate powers enumerated in this act.
History. --s. 17, ch. 89-154; s. 138, ch. 90-179; s. 5, ch. 93-281.
(1) Unless a delayed effective date is specified, the corporate existence begins when the articles of incorporation are filed or on a date specified in the articles of incorporation, if such date is within 5 business days prior to the date of filing.
(2) The Department of State's filing of the articles of incorporation is conclusive proof that the incorporators satisfied all conditions precedent to incorporation except in a proceeding by the state to cancel or revoke the incorporation or involuntarily dissolve the corporation.
History. --s. 18, ch. 89-154.
607.0204 Liability for preincorporation transactions. --All persons purporting to act as or on behalf of a corporation, having actual knowledge that there was no incorporation under this chapter, are jointly and severally liable for all liabilities created while so acting except for any liability to any person who also had actual knowledge that there was no incorporation.
History. --s. 19, ch. 89-154.
(1) After incorporation:
(a) If initial directors are named in the articles of incorporation, the initial directors shall hold an organizational meeting, at the call of a majority of the directors, to complete the organization of the corporation by appointing officers, adopting bylaws, and carrying on any other business brought before the meeting;
(b) If initial directors are not named in the articles, the incorporators shall hold an organizational meeting at the call of a majority of the incorporators:
1. To elect directors and complete the organization of the corporation; or
2. To elect a board of directors who shall complete the organization of the corporation.
(2) Action required or permitted by this act to be taken by incorporators or directors at an organizational meeting may be taken without a meeting if the action taken is evidenced by one or more written consents describing the action taken and signed by each incorporator or director.
(3) The directors or incorporators calling the organizational meeting shall give at least 3 days' notice thereof to each director or incorporator so named, stating the time and place of the meeting.
(4) An organizational meeting may be held in or out of this state.
History. --s. 20, ch. 89-154.
(1) The incorporators or board of directors of a corporation shall adopt initial bylaws for the corporation unless that power is reserved to the shareholders by the articles of incorporation.
(2) The bylaws of a corporation may contain any provision for managing the business and regulating the affairs of the corporation that is not inconsistent with law or the articles of incorporation.
History. --s. 21, ch. 89-154.
(1) Unless the articles of incorporation provide otherwise, the board of directors of a corporation may adopt bylaws to be effective only in an emergency defined in subsection (5). The emergency bylaws, which are subject to amendment or repeal by the shareholders, may make all provisions necessary for managing the corporation during an emergency, including:
(a) Procedures for calling a meeting of the board of directors;
(b) Quorum requirements for the meeting; and
(c) Designation of additional or substitute directors.
(2) The board of directors, either before or during any such emergency, may provide, and from time to time modify, lines of succession in the event that during such emergency any or all officers or agents of the corporation are for any reason rendered incapable of discharging their duties.
(3) All provisions of the regular bylaws consistent with the emergency bylaws remain effective during the emergency. The emergency bylaws are not effective after the emergency ends.
(4) Corporate action taken in good faith in accordance with the emergency bylaws:
(a) Binds the corporation; and
(b) May not be used to impose liability on a corporate director, officer, employee, or agent.
(5) An emergency exists for purposes of this section if a quorum of the corporation's directors cannot readily be assembled because of some catastrophic event.
History. --s. 22, ch. 89-154.