Canada Business Corporations Act - Index

SHORT TITLE

PART I - INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION

Interpretation

Application

Purposes of Act

PART II - INCORPORATION

PART III - CAPACITY AND POWERS

PART IV - REGISTERED OFFICE AND RECORDS

PART V - CORPORATE FINANCE

PART VI - SALE OF CONSTRAINED SHARES

PART VII - SECURITY CERTIFICATES, REGISTERS AND TRANSFERS

Issue — Issuer

Purchase

Registration

PART VIII - TRUST INDENTURES

PART IX - RECEIVERS, RECEIVER-MANAGERS AND SEQUESTRATORS

PART X - DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS

PART XI - INSIDER TRADING

PART XII - SHAREHOLDERS

PART XIII - PROXIES

PART XIV - FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

PART XV - FUNDAMENTAL CHANGES

PART XVI - GOING-PRIVATE TRANSACTIONS AND SQUEEZE-OUT TRANSACTIONS

PART XVII - COMPULSORY AND COMPELLED ACQUISITIONS

PART XVIII - LIQUIDATION AND DISSOLUTION

PART XIX - INVESTIGATION

PART XIX.1 - APPORTIONING AWARD OF DAMAGES

Interpretation and Application

Apportionment of Damages

Joint and Several, or Solidary, Liability

PART XX - REMEDIES, OFFENCES AND PUNISHMENT

PART XX.1 - DOCUMENTS IN ELECTRONIC OR OTHER FORM

PART XXI - GENERAL

Canada Business Corporations Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. C-44)

An Act respecting Canadian Business Corporations

SHORT TITLE

1. This Act may be cited as the Canada Business Corporations Act.

PART I INTERPRETATION AND APPLICATION

Interpretation

2. (1) In this Act,

“affairs”

« affaires internes »

“affairs” means the relationships among a corporation, its affiliates and the shareholders, directors and officers of such bodies corporate but does not include the business carried on by such bodies corporate;

“affiliate”

« groupe »

“affiliate” means an affiliated body corporate within the meaning of subsection (2);

“articles”

« statuts »

“articles” means the original or restated articles of incorporation, articles of amendment, articles of amalgamation, articles of continuance, articles of reorganization, articles of arrangement, articles of dissolution, articles of revival and includes any amendments thereto;

“associate”

« liens »

“associate”, in respect of a relationship with a person, means

(a) a body corporate of which that person beneficially owns or controls, directly or indirectly, shares or securities currently convertible into shares carrying more than ten per cent of the voting rights under all circumstances or by reason of the occurrence of an event that has occurred and is continuing, or a currently exercisable option or right to purchase such shares or such convertible securities,

(b) a partner of that person acting on behalf of the partnership of which they are partners,

(c) a trust or estate or succession in which that person has a substantial beneficial interest or in respect of which that person serves as a trustee or liquidator of the succession or in a similar capacity,

(d) a spouse of that person or an individual who is cohabiting with that person in a conjugal relationship, having so cohabited for a period of at least one year,

(e) a child of that person or of the spouse or individual referred to in paragraph (d), and

(f) a relative of that person or of the spouse or individual referred to in paragraph (d), if that relative has the same residence as that person;

“auditor”

« vérificateur »

“auditor” includes a partnership of auditors or an auditor that is incorporated;

“beneficial interest”

« véritable propriétaire » et « propriété effective »

“beneficial interest” means an interest arising out of the beneficial ownership of securities;

“beneficial ownership”

« véritable propriétaire » et « propriété effective »

“beneficial ownership” includes ownership through any trustee, legal representative, agent or mandatary, or other intermediary;

“body corporate”

« personne morale »

“body corporate” includes a company or other body corporate wherever or however incorporated;

“call”

« option d’achat »

“call” means an option transferable by delivery to demand delivery of a specified number or amount of securities at a fixed price within a specified time but does not include an option or right to acquire securities of the corporation that granted the option or right to acquire;

“corporation”

« société par actions » ou « société »

“corporation” means a body corporate incorporated or continued under this Act and not discontinued under this Act;

“court”

« tribunal »

“court” means

(a) in the Provinces of Newfoundland and Prince Edward Island, the trial division of the Supreme Court of the Province,

(a.1) in the Province of Ontario, the Superior Court of Justice,

(b) in the Provinces of Nova Scotia and British Columbia, the Supreme Court of the Province,

(c) in the Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and New Brunswick, the Court of Queen’s Bench for the Province,

(d) in the Province of Quebec, the Superior Court of the Province, and

(e) the Supreme Court of Yukon, the Supreme Court of the Northwest Territories and the Nunavut Court of Justice;

“court of appeal”

« Cour d’appel »

“court of appeal” means the court to which an appeal lies from an order of a court;

“debt obligation”

« titre de créance »

“debt obligation” means a bond, debenture, note or other evidence of indebtedness or guarantee of a corporation, whether secured or unsecured;

“Director”

« directeur »

“Director” means the Director appointed under section 260;

“director”, “directors” and “board of directors”

« administrateur » et « conseil d’administration »

“director” means a person occupying the position of director by whatever name called and “directors” and “board of directors” includes a single director;

“distributing corporation”

« société ayant fait appel au public »

“distributing corporation” means, subject to subsections (6) and (7), a distributing corporation as defined in the regulations;

“entity”

« entité »

“entity” means a body corporate, a partnership, a trust, a joint venture or an unincorporated association or organization;

“going-private transaction”

« opération de fermeture »

“going-private transaction” means a going-private transaction as defined in the regulations;

“incorporator”

« fondateur »

“incorporator” means a person who signs articles of incorporation;

“individual”

« particulier »

“individual” means a natural person;

“liability”

« passif »

“liability” includes a debt of a corporation arising under section 40, subsection 190(25) and paragraphs 241(3)(f) and (g);

“mandatary”

« mandataire »

“mandatary”, in Quebec, includes a successor;

“Minister”

« ministre »

“Minister” means such member of the Queen’s Privy Council for Canada as is designated by the Governor in Council as the Minister for the purposes of this Act;

“officer”

« dirigeant »

“officer” means an individual appointed as an officer under section 121, the chairperson of the board of directors, the president, a vice-president, the secretary, the treasurer, the comptroller, the general counsel, the general manager, a managing director, of a corporation, or any other individual who performs functions for a corporation similar to those normally performed by an individual occupying any of those offices;

“ordinary resolution”

« résolution ordinaire »

“ordinary resolution” means a resolution passed by a majority of the votes cast by the shareholders who voted in respect of that resolution;

“person”

« personne »

“person” means an individual, partnership, association, body corporate, or personal representative;

“personal representative”

« représentant personnel »

“personal representative” means a person who stands in place of and represents another person including, but not limited to, a trustee, an executor, an administrator, a liquidator of a succession, an administrator of the property of others, a guardian or tutor, a curator, a receiver or sequestrator, an agent or mandatary or an attorney;

“prescribed”

« prescrit » ou « réglementaire »

“prescribed” means prescribed by the regulations;

“put”

« option de vente »

“put” means an option transferable by delivery to deliver a specified number or amount of securities at a fixed price within a specified time;

“redeemable share”

« action rachetable »

“redeemable share” means a share issued by a corporation

(a) that the corporation may purchase or redeem on the demand of the corporation, or

(b) that the corporation is required by its articles to purchase or redeem at a specified time or on the demand of a shareholder;

“resident Canadian”

« résident canadien »

“resident Canadian” means an individual who is

(a) a Canadian citizen ordinarily resident in Canada,

(b) a Canadian citizen not ordinarily resident in Canada who is a member of a prescribed class of persons, or

(c) a permanent resident within the meaning of subsection 2(1) of the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act and ordinarily resident in Canada, except a permanent resident who has been ordinarily resident in Canada for more than one year after the time at which he or she first became eligible to apply for Canadian citizenship;

“security”

« valeur mobilière »

“security” means a share of any class or series of shares or a debt obligation of a corporation and includes a certificate evidencing such a share or debt obligation;

“security interest”

« sûreté »

“security interest” means an interest or right in or charge on property of a corporation to secure payment of a debt or performance of any other obligation of the corporation;

“send”

« envoyer »

“send” includes deliver;

“series”

« série »

“series”, in relation to shares, means a division of a class of shares;

“special resolution”

« résolution spéciale »

“special resolution” means a resolution passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the votes cast by the shareholders who voted in respect of that resolution or signed by all the shareholders entitled to vote on that resolution;

“squeeze-out transaction”

« opération d’éviction »

“squeeze-out transaction” means a transaction by a corporation that is not a distributing corporation that would require an amendment to its articles and would, directly or indirectly, result in the interest of a holder of shares of a class of the corporation being terminated without the consent of the holder, and without substituting an interest of equivalent value in shares issued by the corporation, which shares have equal or greater rights and privileges than the shares of the affected class;

“unanimous shareholder agreement”

« convention unanime des actionnaires »

“unanimous shareholder agreement” means an agreement described in subsection 146(1) or a declaration of a shareholder described in subsection 146(2).

(2) For the purposes of this Act,

(a) one body corporate is affiliated with another body corporate if one of them is the subsidiary of the other or both are subsidiaries of the same body corporate or each of them is controlled by the same person; and

(b) if two bodies corporate are affiliated with the same body corporate at the same time, they are deemed to be affiliated with each other.

(3) For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate is controlled by a person or by two or more bodies corporate if

(a) securities of the body corporate to which are attached more than fifty per cent of the votes that may be cast to elect directors of the body corporate are held, other than by way of security only, by or for the benefit of that person or by or for the benefit of those bodies corporate; and

(b) the votes attached to those securities are sufficient, if exercised, to elect a majority of the directors of the body corporate.

(4) A body corporate is the holding body corporate of another if that other body corporate is its subsidiary.

(5) A body corporate is a subsidiary of another body corporate if

(a) it is controlled by

(i) that other body corporate,

(ii) that other body corporate and one or more bodies corporate each of which is controlled by that other body corporate, or

(iii) two or more bodies corporate each of which is controlled by that other body corporate; or

(b) it is a subsidiary of a body corporate that is a subsidiary of that other body corporate.

(6) On the application of a corporation, the Director may determine that the corporation is not or was not a distributing corporation if the Director is satisfied that the determination would not be prejudicial to the public interest.

(7) The Director may determine that a class of corporations are not or were not distributing corporations if the Director is satisfied that the determination would not be prejudicial to the public interest.

(8) For the purposes of this Act, the word “infant” has the same meaning as in the applicable provincial law and, in the absence of any such law, has the same meaning as the word “child” in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, adopted in the United Nations General Assembly on November 20, 1989.

Application

3. (1) This Act applies to every corporation incorporated and every body corporate continued as a corporation under this Act that has not been discontinued under this Act.

(2)  [Repealed, 1991, c. 45, s. 551]

(3) The following do not apply to a corporation:

(a) the Canada Corporations Act, chapter C-32 of the Revised Statutes of Canada, 1970;

(a.1) the Canada Not-for-profit Corporations Act;

(b) the Winding-up and Restructuring Act; and

(c) the provisions of a Special Act, as defined in section 87 of the Canada Transportation Act, that are inconsistent with this Act.

(4) No corporation shall carry on the business of

(a) a bank;

(a.1) an association to which the Cooperative Credit Associations Act applies;

(b) a company or society to which the Insurance Companies Act applies; or

(c) a company to which the Trust and Loan Companies Act applies.

(5) No corporation shall carry on business as a degree-granting educational institution unless expressly authorized to do so by a federal or provincial agent that by law has the power to confer degree-granting authority on an educational institution.

Purposes of Act

4. The purposes of this Act are to revise and reform the law applicable to business corporations incorporated to carry on business throughout Canada, to advance the cause of uniformity of business corporation law in Canada and to provide a means of allowing an orderly transferance of certain federal companies incorporated under various Acts of Parliament to this Act.

PART II INCORPORATION

5. (1) One or more individuals not one of whom

(a) is less than eighteen years of age,

(b) is of unsound mind and has been so found by a court in Canada or elsewhere, or

(c) has the status of bankrupt, may incorporate a corporation by signing articles of incorporation and complying with section 7.

(2) One or more bodies corporate may incorporate a corporation by signing articles of incorporation and complying with section 7.

6. (1) Articles of incorporation shall follow the form that the Director fixes and shall set out, in respect of the proposed corporation,

(a) the name of the corporation;

(b) the province in Canada where the registered office is to be situated;

(c) the classes and any maximum number of shares that the corporation is authorized to issue, and

(i) if there will be two or more classes of shares, the rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attaching to each class of shares, and

(ii) if a class of shares may be issued in series, the authority given to the directors to fix the number of shares in, and to determine the designation of, and the rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attaching to, the shares of each series;

(d) if the issue, transfer or ownership of shares of the corporation is to be restricted, a statement to that effect and a statement as to the nature of such restrictions;

(e) the number of directors or, subject to paragraph 107(a), the minimum and maximum number of directors of the corporation; and

(f) any restrictions on the businesses that the corporation may carry on.

(2) The articles may set out any provisions permitted by this Act or by law to be set out in the by-laws of the corporation.

(3) Subject to subsection (4), if the articles or a unanimous shareholder agreement require a greater number of votes of directors or shareholders than that required by this Act to effect any action, the provisions of the articles or of the unanimous shareholder agreement prevail.

(4) The articles may not require a greater number of votes of shareholders to remove a director than the number required by section 109.

7. An incorporator shall send to the Director articles of incorporation and the documents required by sections 19 and 106.

8. (1) Subject to subsection (2), on receipt of articles of incorporation, the Director shall issue a certificate of incorporation in accordance with section 262.

(2) The Director may refuse to issue the certificate if a notice that is required to be sent under subsection 19(2) or 106(1) indicates that the corporation, if it came into existence, would not be in compliance with this Act.

9. A corporation comes into existence on the date shown in the certificate of incorporation.

10. (1) The word or expression “Limited”, “Limitée”, “Incorporated”, “Incorporée”, “Corporation” or “Société par actions de régime fédéral” or the corresponding abbreviation “Ltd.”, “Ltée”, “Inc.”, “Corp.” or “S.A.R.F.” shall be part, other than only in a figurative or descriptive sense, of the name of every corporation, but a corporation may use and be legally designated by either the full or the corresponding abbreviated form.

(1.1) Subsection (1) does not apply to a corporation that has a corporate name that, immediately before the day on which this subsection comes into force, included, other than only in a figurative or descriptive sense, the expression “Société commerciale canadienne” or the abbreviation “S.C.C.”, and any such corporation may use and be legally designated by either that expression or that abbreviation.

(2) The Director may exempt a body corporate continued as a corporation under this Act from the provisions of subsection (1).

(3) Subject to subsection 12(1), the name of a corporation may be set out in its articles in an English form, a French form, an English form and a French form, or a combined English and French form, so long as the combined form meets the prescribed criteria. The corporation may use and may be legally designated by any such form.

(4) Subject to subsection 12(1), a corporation may, for use outside Canada, set out its name in its articles in any language form and it may use and may be legally designated by any such form outside Canada.

(5) A corporation shall set out its name in legible characters in all contracts, invoices, negotiable instruments and orders for goods or services issued or made by or on behalf of the corporation.

(6) Subject to subsections (5) and 12(1), a corporation may carry on business under or identify itself by a name other than its corporate name if that other name does not contain, other than in a figurative or descriptive sense, either the word or expression “Limited”, “Limitée”, “Incorporated”, “Incorporée”, “Corporation” or “Société par actions de régime fédéral” or the corresponding abbreviation.

11. (1) The Director may, on request, reserve for ninety days a name for an intended corporation or for a corporation about to change its name.

(2) If requested to do so by the incorporators or a corporation, the Director shall assign to the corporation as its name a designating number followed by the word “Canada” and a word or expression, or the corresponding abbreviation, referred to in subsection 10(1).

12. (1) A corporation shall not be incorporated or continued as a corporation under this Act with, have, carry on business under or identify itself by a name

(a) that is, as prescribed, prohibited or deceptively misdescriptive; or

(b) that is reserved for another corporation or intended corporation under section 11.

(2) If, through inadvertence or otherwise, a corporation

(a) comes into existence or is continued with a name, or

(b) on an application to change its name, is granted a name

that contravenes this section, the Director may direct the corporation to change its name in accordance with section 173.

(3)  [Repealed, 1994, c. 24, s. 7]

(4) If a corporation has a designating number as its name, the Director may direct the corporation to change its name to a name other than a designating number in accordance with section 173.

(4.1) Where a corporation acquires a name as a result of a person undertaking to dissolve or to change names, and the undertaking is not honoured, the Director may direct the corporation to change its name in accordance with section 173, unless the undertaking is honoured within the period specified in subsection (5).

(5) Where a corporation has been directed under subsection (2), (4) or (4.1) to change its name and has not within sixty days after the service of the directive to that effect changed its name to a name that complies with this Act, the Director may revoke the name of the corporation and assign a name to it and, until changed in accordance with section 173, the name of the corporation is thereafter the name so assigned.

13. (1) When a corporation has had its name revoked and a name assigned to it under subsection 12(5), the Director shall issue a certificate of amendment showing the new name of the corporation and shall give notice of the change of name as soon as practicable in a publication generally available to the public.

(2) The articles of the corporation are amended accordingly on the date shown in the certificate of amendment.

14. (1) Subject to this section, a person who enters into, or purports to enter into, a written contract in the name of or on behalf of a corporation before it comes into existence is personally bound by the contract and is entitled to its benefits.

(2) A corporation may, within a reasonable time after it comes into existence, by any action or conduct signifying its intention to be bound thereby, adopt a written contract made before it came into existence in its name or on its behalf, and on such adoption

(a) the corporation is bound by the contract and is entitled to the benefits thereof as if the corporation had been in existence at the date of the contract and had been a party thereto; and

(b) a person who purported to act in the name of or on behalf of the corporation ceases, except as provided in subsection (3), to be bound by or entitled to the benefits of the contract.

(3) Subject to subsection (4), whether or not a written contract made before the coming into existence of a corporation is adopted by the corporation, a party to the contract may apply to a court for an order respecting the nature and extent of the obligations and liability under the contract of the corporation and the person who entered into, or purported to enter into, the contract in the name of or on behalf of the corporation. On the application, the court may make any order it thinks fit.

(4) If expressly so provided in the written contract, a person who purported to act in the name of or on behalf of the corporation before it came into existence is not in any event bound by the contract or entitled to the benefits thereof.

PART III CAPACITY AND POWERS

15. (1) A corporation has the capacity and, subject to this Act, the rights, powers and privileges of a natural person.

(2) A corporation may carry on business throughout Canada.

(3) A corporation has the capacity to carry on its business, conduct its affairs and exercise its powers in any jurisdiction outside Canada to the extent that the laws of such jurisdiction permit.

16. (1) It is not necessary for a by-law to be passed in order to confer any particular power on the corporation or its directors.

(2) A corporation shall not carry on any business or exercise any power that it is restricted by its articles from carrying on or exercising, nor shall the corporation exercise any of its powers in a manner contrary to its articles.

(3) No act of a corporation, including any transfer of property to or by a corporation, is invalid by reason only that the act or transfer is contrary to its articles or this Act.

17. No person is affected by or is deemed to have notice or knowledge of the contents of a document concerning a corporation by reason only that the document has been filed by the Director or is available for inspection at an office of the corporation.

18. (1) No corporation and no guarantor of an obligation of a corporation may assert against a person dealing with the corporation or against a person who acquired rights from the corporation that

(a) the articles, by-laws and any unanimous shareholder agreement have not been complied with;

(b) the persons named in the most recent notice sent to the Director under section 106 or 113 are not the directors of the corporation;

(c) the place named in the most recent notice sent to the Director under section 19 is not the registered office of the corporation;

(d) a person held out by a corporation as a director, officer, agent or mandatary of the corporation has not been duly appointed or has no authority to exercise the powers and perform the duties that are customary in the business of the corporation or usual for a director, officer, agent or mandatary;

(e) a document issued by any director, officer, agent or mandatary of a corporation with actual or usual authority to issue the document is not valid or genuine; or

(f) a sale, lease or exchange of property referred to in subsection 189(3) was not authorized.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply in respect of a person who has, or ought to have, knowledge of a situation described in that subsection by virtue of their relationship to the corporation.

PART IV REGISTERED OFFICE AND RECORDS

19. (1) A corporation shall at all times have a registered office in the province in Canada specified in its articles.

(2) A notice of registered office in the form that the Director fixes shall be sent to the Director together with any articles that designate or change the province where the registered office of the corporation is located.

(3) The directors of a corporation may change the place and address of the registered office within the province specified in the articles.

(4) A corporation shall send to the Director, within fifteen days of any change of address of its registered office, a notice in the form that the Director fixes and the Director shall file it.

20. (1) A corporation shall prepare and maintain, at its registered office or at any other place in Canada designated by the directors, records containing

(a) the articles and the by-laws, and all amendments thereto, and a copy of any unanimous shareholder agreement;

(b) minutes of meetings and resolutions of shareholders;

(c) copies of all notices required by section 106 or 113; and

(d) a securities register that complies with section 50.

(2) In addition to the records described in subsection (1), a corporation shall prepare and maintain adequate accounting records and records containing minutes of meetings and resolutions of the directors and any committee thereof.

(2.1) Subject to any other Act of Parliament and to any Act of the legislature of a province that provides for a longer retention period, a corporation shall retain the accounting records referred to in subsection (2) for a period of six years after the end of the financial year to which the records relate.

(3) For the purposes of paragraph (1)(b) and subsection (2), where a body corporate is continued under this Act, “records” includes similar records required by law to be maintained by the body corporate before it was so continued.

(4) The records described in subsection (2) shall be kept at the registered office of the corporation or at such other place as the directors think fit and shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection by the directors.

(5) If accounting records of a corporation are kept outside Canada, accounting records adequate to enable the directors to ascertain the financial position of the corporation with reasonable accuracy on a quarterly basis shall be kept at the registered office or any other place in Canada designated by the directors.

(5.1) Despite subsections (1) and (5), but subject to the Income Tax Act, the Excise Tax Act, the Customs Act and any other Act administered by the Minister of National Revenue, a corporation may keep all or any of its corporate records and accounting records referred to in subsection (1) or (2) at a place outside Canada, if

(a) the records are available for inspection, by means of a computer terminal or other technology, during regular office hours at the registered office or any other place in Canada designated by the directors; and

(b) the corporation provides the technical assistance to facilitate an inspection referred to in paragraph (a).

(6) A corporation that, without reasonable cause, fails to comply with this section is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.

21. (1) Subject to subsection (1.1), shareholders and creditors of a corporation, their personal representatives and the Director may examine the records described in subsection 20(1) during the usual business hours of the corporation, and may take extracts from the records, free of charge, and, if the corporation is a distributing corporation, any other person may do so on payment of a reasonable fee.

(1.1) Any person described in subsection (1) who wishes to examine the securities register of a distributing corporation must first make a request to the corporation or its agent or mandatary, accompanied by an affidavit referred to in subsection (7). On receipt of the affidavit, the corporation or its agent or mandatary shall allow the applicant access to the securities register during the corporation’s usual business hours, and, on payment of a reasonable fee, provide the applicant with an extract from the securities register.

(2) A shareholder of a corporation is entitled on request and without charge to one copy of the articles and by-laws and of any unanimous shareholder agreement.

(3) Shareholders and creditors of a corporation, their personal representatives, the Director and, if the corporation is a distributing corporation, any other person, on payment of a reasonable fee and on sending to a corporation or its agent or mandatary the affidavit referred to in subsection (7), may on application require the corporation or its agent or mandatary to provide within 10 days after the receipt of the affidavit a list (in this section referred to as the “basic list”) made up to a date not more than 10 days before the date of receipt of the affidavit setting out the names of the shareholders of the corporation, the number of shares owned by each shareholder and the address of each shareholder as shown on the records of the corporation.

(4) A person requiring a corporation to provide a basic list may, by stating in the affidavit referred to in subsection (3) that they require supplemental lists, require the corporation or its agent or mandatary on payment of a reasonable fee to provide supplemental lists setting out any changes from the basic list in the names or addresses of the shareholders and the number of shares owned by each shareholder for each business day following the date the basic list is made up to.

(5) The corporation or its agent or mandatary shall provide a supplemental list required under subsection (4)

(a) on the date the basic list is furnished, where the information relates to changes that took place prior to that date; and

(b) on the business day following the day to which the supplemental list relates, where the information relates to changes that take place on or after the date the basic list is furnished.

(6) A person requiring a corporation to furnish a basic list or a supplemental list may also require the corporation to include in that list the name and address of any known holder of an option or right to acquire shares of the corporation.

(7) The affidavit required under subsection (1.1) or (3) shall state

(a) the name and address of the applicant;

(b) the name and address for service of the body corporate, if the applicant is a body corporate; and

(c) that the basic list and any supplemental lists obtained pursuant to subsection (4) or the information contained in the securities register obtained pursuant to subsection (1.1), as the case may be, will not be used except as permitted under subsection (9).

(8) If the applicant is a body corporate, the affidavit shall be made by a director or officer of the body corporate.

(9) A list of shareholders or information from a securities register obtained under this section shall not be used by any person except in connection with

(a) an effort to influence the voting of shareholders of the corporation;

(b) an offer to acquire securities of the corporation; or

(c) any other matter relating to the affairs of the corporation.

(10) A person who, without reasonable cause, contravenes this section is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.

22. (1) All registers and other records required by this Act to be prepared and maintained may be in a bound or loose-leaf form or in a photographic film form, or may be entered or recorded by any system of mechanical or electronic data processing or any other information storage device that is capable of reproducing any required information in intelligible written form within a reasonable time.

(2) A corporation or its agents or mandataries shall take reasonable precautions to

(a) prevent loss or destruction of,

(b) prevent falsification of entries in, and

(c) facilitate detection and correction of inaccuracies in the registers and other records required by this Act to be prepared and maintained.

(3) A person who, without reasonable cause, contravenes this section is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.

23. (1) A corporation may, but need not, adopt a corporate seal, and may change a corporate seal that is adopted.

(2) A document executed or, in Quebec, signed on behalf of a corporation is not invalid merely because a corporate seal is not affixed to it.

PART V CORPORATE FINANCE

24. (1) Shares of a corporation shall be in registered form and shall be without nominal or par value.

(2) When a body corporate is continued under this Act, a share with nominal or par value issued by the body corporate before it was so continued is, for the purpose of subsection (1), deemed to be a share without nominal or par value.

(3) Where a corporation has only one class of shares, the rights of the holders thereof are equal in all respects and include the rights

(a) to vote at any meeting of shareholders of the corporation;

(b) to receive any dividend declared by the corporation; and

(c) to receive the remaining property of the corporation on dissolution.

(4) The articles may provide for more than one class of shares and, if they so provide,

(a) the rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attaching to the shares of each class shall be set out therein; and

(b) the rights set out in subsection (3) shall be attached to at least one class of shares but all such rights are not required to be attached to one class.

25. (1) Subject to the articles, the by-laws and any unanimous shareholder agreement and to section 28, shares may be issued at such times and to such persons and for such consideration as the directors may determine.

(2) Shares issued by a corporation are non-assessable and the holders are not liable to the corporation or to its creditors in respect thereof.

(3) A share shall not be issued until the consideration for the share is fully paid in money or in property or past services that are not less in value than the fair equivalent of the money that the corporation would have received if the share had been issued for money.

(4) In determining whether property or past services are the fair equivalent of a money consideration, the directors may take into account reasonable charges and expenses of organization and reorganization and payments for property and past services reasonably expected to benefit the corporation.

Definition of “property”

(5) For the purposes of this section, “property” does not include a promissory note, or a promise to pay, that is made by a person to whom a share is issued, or a person who does not deal at arm’s length, within the meaning of that expression in the Income Tax Act, with a person to whom a share is issued.

26. (1) A corporation shall maintain a separate stated capital account for each class and series of shares it issues.

(2) A corporation shall add to the appropriate stated capital account the full amount of any consideration it receives for any shares it issues.

(3) Despite subsection (2), a corporation may, subject to subsection (4), add to the stated capital accounts maintained for the shares of classes or series the whole or any part of the amount of the consideration that it receives in an exchange if the corporation issues shares

(a) in exchange for

(i) property of a person who immediately before the exchange did not deal with the corporation at arm’s length within the meaning of that expression in the Income Tax Act,

(ii) shares of, or another interest or right in, a body corporate that immediately before the exchange, or that because of the exchange, did not deal with the corporation at arm’s length within the meaning of that expression in the Income Tax Act, or

(iii) property of a person who, immediately before the exchange, dealt with the corporation at arm’s length within the meaning of that expression in the Income Tax Act, if the person, the corporation and all the holders of shares in the class or series of shares so issued consent to the exchange; or

(b) pursuant to an agreement referred to in subsection 182(1) or an arrangement referred to in paragraph 192(1)(b) or (c) or to shareholders of an amalgamating body corporate who receive the shares in addition to or instead of securities of the amalgamated body corporate.

(4) On the issue of a share a corporation shall not add to a stated capital account in respect of the share it issues an amount greater than the amount of the consideration it received for the share.

(5) Where a corporation proposes to add any amount to a stated capital account it maintains in respect of a class or series of shares, if

(a) the amount to be added was not received by the corporation as consideration for the issue of shares, and

(b) the corporation has issued any outstanding shares of more than one class or series, the addition to the stated capital account must be approved by special resolution unless all the issued and outstanding shares are shares of not more than two classes of convertible shares referred to in subsection 39(5).

(6) When a body corporate is continued under this Act, it may add to a stated capital account any consideration received by it for a share it issued and a corporation at any time may, subject to subsection (5), add to a stated capital account any amount it credited to a retained earnings or other surplus account.

(7) When a body corporate is continued under this Act, subsection (2) does not apply to the consideration received by it before it was so continued unless the share in respect of which the consideration is received is issued after the corporation is so continued.

(8) When a body corporate is continued under this Act, any amount unpaid in respect of a share issued by the body corporate before it was so continued and paid after it was so continued shall be added to the stated capital account maintained for the shares of that class or series.

(9) For the purposes of subsection 34(2), sections 38 and 42, and paragraph 185(2)(a), when a body corporate is continued under this Act its stated capital is deemed to include the amount that would have been included in stated capital if the body corporate had been incorporated under this Act.

(10) A corporation shall not reduce its stated capital or any stated capital account except in the manner provided in this Act.

(11) Subsections (1) to (10) and any other provisions of this Act relating to stated capital do not apply to an open-end mutual fund.

Definition of “open-end mutual fund”

(12) For the purposes of this section, “open-end mutual fund” means a distributing corporation that carries on only the business of investing the consideration it receives for the shares it issues, and all or substantially all of those shares are redeemable on the demand of a shareholder.

27. (1) The articles may authorize, subject to any limitations set out in them, the issue of any class of shares in one or more series and may do either or both of the following:

(a) fix the number of shares in, and determine the designation, rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attaching to the shares of, each series; or

(b) authorize the directors to fix the number of shares in, and determine the designation, rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attaching to the shares of, each series.

(2) If any cumulative dividends or amounts payable on return of capital in respect of a series of shares are not paid in full, the shares of all series of the same class participate rateably in respect of accumulated dividends and return of capital.

(3) No rights, privileges, restrictions or conditions attached to a series of shares authorized under this section shall confer on a series a priority in respect of dividends or return of capital over any other series of shares of the same class that are then outstanding

(4) If the directors exercise their authority under paragraph (1)(b), they shall, before the issue of shares of the series, send, in the form that the Director fixes, articles of amendment to the Director to designate a series of shares.

(5) On receipt of articles of amendment designating a series of shares, the Director shall issue a certificate of amendment in accordance with section 262

(6) The articles of the corporation are amended accordingly on the date shown in the certificate of amendment

28. (1) If the articles so provide, no shares of a class shall be issued unless the shares have first been offered to the shareholders holding shares of that class, and those shareholders have a pre-emptive right to acquire the offered shares in proportion to their holdings of the shares of that class, at such price and on such terms as those shares are to be offered to others.

(2) Notwithstanding that the articles provide the pre-emptive right referred to in subsection (1), shareholders have no pre-emptive right in respect of shares to be issued

(a) for a consideration other than money;

(b) as a share dividend; or

(c) pursuant to the exercise of conversion privileges, options or rights previously granted by the corporation

29. (1) A corporation may issue certificates, warrants or other evidences of conversion privileges, options or rights to acquire securities of the corporation, and shall set out the conditions thereof

(a) in the certificates, warrants or other evidences; or

(b) in certificates evidencing the securities to which the conversion privileges, options or rights are attached.

(2) Conversion privileges, options and rights to acquire securities of a corporation may be made transferable or non-transferable, and options and rights to acquire may be made separable or inseparable from any securities to which they are attached.

(3) Where a corporation has granted privileges to convert any securities issued by the corporation into shares, or into shares of another class or series, or has issued or granted options or rights to acquire shares, if the articles limit the number of authorized shares, the corporation shall reserve and continue to reserve sufficient authorized shares to meet the exercise of such conversion privileges, options and rights.

30. (1) Subject to subsection (2) and sections 31 to 36, a corporation

(a) shall not hold shares in itself or in its holding body corporate; and

(b) shall not permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate to acquire shares of the corporation

(2) Subject to section 31, a corporation shall cause a subsidiary body corporate of the corporation that holds shares of the corporation to sell or otherwise dispose of those shares within five years from the date

(a) the body corporate became a subsidiary of the corporation; or

(b) the corporation was continued under this Act.

31. (1) A corporation may in the capacity of a personal representative hold shares in itself or in its holding body corporate unless it or the holding body corporate or a subsidiary of either of them has a beneficial interest in the shares.

(2) A corporation may hold shares in itself or in its holding body corporate by way of security for the purposes of a transaction entered into by it in the ordinary course of a business that includes the lending of money.

(3) A corporation may permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate to acquire shares of the corporation

(a) in the subsidiary’s capacity as a personal representative, unless the subsidiary would have a beneficial interest in the shares; or

(b) by way of security for the purposes of a transaction entered into by the subsidiary in the ordinary course of a business that includes the lending of money.

(4) A corporation may permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate to acquire shares of the corporation through the issuance of those shares by the corporation to the subsidiary body corporate if, before the acquisition takes place, the conditions prescribed for the purposes of this subsection are met.

(5) After an acquisition has taken place under the purported authority of subsection (4), the conditions prescribed for the purposes of this subsection must be met.

(6) If

(a) a corporation permits a subsidiary body corporate to acquire shares of the corporation under the purported authority of subsection (4), and

(b) either

(i) one or more of the conditions prescribed for the purposes of subsection (4) were not met, or

(ii) one or more of the conditions prescribed for the purposes of subsection (5) are not met or cease to be met, then, notwithstanding subsections 16(3) and 26(2), the prescribed consequences apply in respect of the acquisition of the shares and their issuance.

32. (1) Subject to subsection 39(8), a corporation may, for the purpose of assisting the corporation or any of its affiliates or associates to qualify under any prescribed law of Canada or a province to receive licences, permits, grants, payments or other benefits by reason of attaining or maintaining a specified level of Canadian ownership or control, hold shares in itself that

(a) are not constrained for the purpose of assisting the corporation or any of its affiliates or associates to so qualify; or

(b) are shares into which shares held under paragraph (a) were converted by the corporation that are constrained for the purpose of assisting the corporation to so qualify and that were not previously held by the corporation.

(2) A corporation shall not transfer shares held under subsection (1) to any person unless the corporation is satisfied, on reasonable grounds, that the ownership of the shares as a result of the transfer would assist the corporation or any of its affiliates or associates to achieve the purpose set out in subsection (1).

(3) A corporation that, without reasonable cause, fails to comply with subsection (2) is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars.

(4) Where a corporation commits an offence under subsection (3), any director of the corporation who knowingly authorized, permitted or acquiesced in the commission of the offence is a party to and guilty of the offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding five thousand dollars or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both, whether or not the corporation has been prosecuted or convicted.

(5) Where shares held under subsection (1) are transferred by a corporation, subsections 25(1), (3), (4) and (5), paragraph 115(3)(c) and subsection 118(1) apply, with such modifications as the circumstances require, in respect of the transfer as if the transfer were an issue.

(6) No transfer of shares by a corporation shall be void, voidable or, in Quebec, null solely because the transfer is in contravention of subsection (2).

33. (1) A corporation holding shares in itself or in its holding body corporate shall not vote or permit those shares to be voted unless the corporation

(a) holds the shares in the capacity of a personal representative; and

(b) has complied with section 153.

(2) A corporation shall not permit any of its subsidiary bodies corporate holding shares in the corporation to vote, or permit those shares to be voted, unless the subsidiary body corporate satisfies the requirements of subsection (1).

34. (1) Subject to subsection (2) and to its articles, a corporation may purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it.

(2) A corporation shall not make any payment to purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

(a) the corporation is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

(b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would after the payment be less than the aggregate of its liabilities and stated capital of all classes.

35. (1) Notwithstanding subsection 34(2), but subject to subsection (3) and to its articles, a corporation may purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it to

(a) settle or compromise a debt or claim asserted by or against the corporation;

(b) eliminate fractional shares; or

(c) fulfil the terms of a non-assignable agreement under which the corporation has an option or is obliged to purchase shares owned by a director, an officer or an employee of the corporation.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection 34(2), a corporation may purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it to

(a) satisfy the claim of a shareholder who dissents under section 190; or

(b) comply with an order under section 241.

(3) A corporation shall not make any payment to purchase or acquire under subsection (1) shares issued by it if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

(a) the corporation is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

(b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would after the payment be less than the aggregate of

(i) its liabilities, and

(ii) the amount required for payment on a redemption or in a liquidation of all shares the holders of which have the right to be paid before the holders of the shares to be purchased or acquired, to the extent that the amount has not been included in its liabilities.

36. (1) Notwithstanding subsection 34(2) or 35(3), but subject to subsection (2) and to its articles, a corporation may purchase or redeem any redeemable shares issued by it at prices not exceeding the redemption price thereof stated in the articles or calculated according to a formula stated in the articles.

(2) A corporation shall not make any payment to purchase or redeem any redeemable shares issued by it if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

(a) the corporation is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

(b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would after the payment be less than the aggregate of

(i) its liabilities, and

(ii) the amount that would be required to pay the holders of shares that have a right to be paid, on a redemption or in a liquidation, rateably with or before the holders of the shares to be purchased or redeemed, to the extent that the amount has not been included in its liabilities.

37. A corporation may accept from any shareholder a share of the corporation surrendered to it as a gift including, in Quebec, a legacy but may not extinguish or reduce a liability in respect of an amount unpaid on any such share except in accordance with section 38.

38. (1) Subject to subsection (3), a corporation may by special resolution reduce its stated capital for any purpose including, without limiting the generality of the foregoing, for the purpose of

(a) extinguishing or reducing a liability in respect of an amount unpaid on any share;

(b) distributing to the holder of an issued share of any class or series of shares an amount not exceeding the stated capital of the class or series; and

(c) declaring its stated capital to be reduced by an amount that is not represented by realizable assets.

(2) A special resolution under this section shall specify the stated capital account or accounts from which the reduction of stated capital effected by the special resolution will be deducted.

(3) A corporation shall not reduce its stated capital for any purpose other than the purpose mentioned in paragraph (1)(c) if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

(a) the corporation is, or would after the reduction be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

(b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would thereby be less than the aggregate of its liabilities.

(4) A creditor of a corporation is entitled to apply to a court for an order compelling a shareholder or other recipient

(a) to pay to the corporation an amount equal to any liability of the shareholder that was extinguished or reduced contrary to this section; or

(b) to pay or deliver to the corporation any money or property that was paid or distributed to the shareholder or other recipient as a consequence of a reduction of capital made contrary to this section.

(5) An action to enforce a liability imposed by this section may not be commenced after two years from the date of the act complained of.

(6)  [Repealed, 2001, c. 14, s. 23]

39. (1) On a purchase, redemption or other acquisition by a corporation under section 34, 35, 36, 45 or 190 or paragraph 241(3)(f), of shares or fractions thereof issued by it, the corporation shall deduct from the stated capital account maintained for the class or series of shares of which the shares purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired form a part an amount equal to the result obtained by multiplying the stated capital of the shares of that class or series by the number of shares of that class or series or fractions thereof purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired, divided by the number of issued shares of that class or series immediately before the purchase, redemption or other acquisition.

(2) A corporation shall deduct the amount of a payment made by the corporation to a shareholder under paragraph 241(3)(g) from the stated capital account maintained for the class or series of shares in respect of which the payment was made.

(3) A corporation shall adjust its stated capital account or accounts in accordance with any special resolution referred to in subsection 38(2).

(4) On a conversion of issued shares of a corporation into shares of another class or series or a change under section 173, 191 or 241 of issued shares of a corporation into shares of another class or series, the corporation shall

(a) deduct from the stated capital account maintained for the class or series of shares converted or changed an amount equal to the result obtained by multiplying the stated capital of the shares of that class or series by the number of shares of that class or series converted or changed, divided by the number of issued shares of that class or series immediately before the conversion or change; and

(b) add the result obtained under paragraph (a) and any additional consideration received pursuant to the conversion or change to the stated capital account maintained or to be maintained for the class or series of shares into which the shares have been converted or changed.

(5) For the purposes of subsection (4) and subject to its articles, where a corporation issues two classes of shares and there is attached to each such class a right to convert a share of the one class into a share of the other class, if a share of one class is converted into a share of the other class, the amount of stated capital attributable to a share in either class is the aggregate of the stated capital of both classes divided by the number of issued shares of both classes immediately before the conversion.

(6) Shares or fractions thereof of any class or series of shares issued by a corporation and purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired by it shall be cancelled or, if the articles limit the number of authorized shares, may be restored to the status of authorized but unissued shares of the class.

(7) For the purposes of this section, a corporation holding shares in itself as permitted by subsections 31(1) and (2) is deemed not to have purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired such shares.

(8) For the purposes of this section, a corporation holding shares in itself as permitted by paragraph 32(1)(a) is deemed not to have purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired the shares at the time they were acquired, but

(a) any of those shares that are held by the corporation at the expiration of two years, and

(b) any shares into which any of those shares were converted by the corporation and held under paragraph 32(1)(b) that are held by the corporation at the expiration of two years after the shares from which they were converted were acquired are deemed to have been acquired at the expiration of the two years.

(9) Shares issued by a corporation and converted into shares of another class or series or changed under section 173, 191 or 241 into shares of another class or series shall become issued shares of the class or series of shares into which the shares have been converted or changed.

(10) Where the articles limit the number of authorized shares of a class of shares of a corporation and issued shares of that class or of a series of shares of that class have become, pursuant to subsection (9), issued shares of another class or series, the number of unissued shares of the first-mentioned class shall, unless the articles otherwise provide, be increased by the number of shares that, pursuant to subsection (9), became shares of another class or series.

(11) Debt obligations issued, pledged, hypothecated or deposited by a corporation are not redeemed by reason only that the indebtedness evidenced by the debt obligations or in respect of which the debt obligations are issued, pledged, hypothecated or deposited is repaid.

(12) Debt obligations issued by a corporation and purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired by it may be cancelled or, subject to any applicable trust indenture or other agreement, may be reissued, pledged or hypothecated to secure any obligation of the corporation then existing or thereafter incurred, and any such acquisition and reissue, pledge or hypothecation is not a cancellation of the debt obligations

40. (1) A corporation shall fulfil its obligations under a contract to buy shares of the corporation, except if the corporation can prove that enforcement of the contract would put it in breach of any of sections 34 to 36

(2) Until the corporation has fulfilled all its obligations under a contract referred to in subsection (1), the other party retains the status of claimant entitled to be paid as soon as the corporation is lawfully able to do so or, in a liquidation, to be ranked subordinate to the rights of creditors and to the rights of holders of any class of shares whose rights were in priority to the rights given to the holders of the class of shares being purchased, but in priority to the rights of other shareholders.

41. The directors may authorize the corporation to pay a reasonable commission to any person in consideration of the person’s purchasing or agreeing to purchase shares of the corporation from the corporation or from any other person, or procuring or agreeing to procure purchasers for any such shares.

42. A corporation shall not declare or pay a dividend if there are reasonable grounds for believing that

(a) the corporation is, or would after the payment be, unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

(b) the realizable value of the corporation’s assets would thereby be less than the aggregate of its liabilities and stated capital of all classes.

43. (1) A corporation may pay a dividend by issuing fully paid shares of the corporation and, subject to section 42, a corporation may pay a dividend in money or property.

(2) If shares of a corporation are issued in payment of a dividend, the declared amount of the dividend stated as an amount of money shall be added to the stated capital account maintained or to be maintained for the shares of the class or series issued in payment of the dividend.

44.  [Repealed, 2001, c. 14, s. 26]

45. (1) The shareholders of a corporation are not, as shareholders, liable for any liability, act or default of the corporation except under subsection 38(4), 118(4) or (5), 146(5) or 226(4) or (5).

(2) Subject to subsection 49(8), the articles may provide that the corporation has a lien or hypothec on a share registered in the name of a shareholder or the shareholder’s personal representative for a debt of that shareholder to the corporation, including an amount unpaid in respect of a share issued by a body corporate on the date it was continued under this Act.

(3) A corporation may enforce a lien or hypothec referred to in subsection (2) in accordance with its by-laws.

PART VI SALE OF CONSTRAINED SHARES

46. (1) A corporation that has constraints on the issue, transfer or ownership of its shares of any class or series may, for any of the purposes referred to in paragraphs (a) to (c), sell, under the conditions and after giving the notice that may be prescribed, as if it were the owner of the shares, any of those constrained shares that are owned, or that the directors determine in the manner that may be prescribed may be owned, contrary to the constraints in order to

(a) assist the corporation or any of its affiliates or associates to qualify under any prescribed law of Canada or a province to receive licences, permits, grants, payments or other benefits by reason of attaining or maintaining a specified level of Canadian ownership or control;

(b) assist the corporation to comply with any prescribed law; or

(c) attain or maintain a level of Canadian ownership specified in its articles.

(2) Where shares are to be sold by a corporation under subsection (1), the directors of the corporation shall select the shares for sale in good faith and in a manner that is not unfairly prejudicial to, and does not unfairly disregard the interests of, the holders of the shares in the constrained class or series taken as a whole.

(3) If shares are sold by a corporation under subsection (1), the owner of the shares immediately before the sale shall by that sale be divested of their interest or right in the shares, and the person who, but for the sale, would be the registered owner of the shares or a person who satisfies the corporation that, but for the sale, they could properly be treated as the registered owner or registered holder of the shares under section 51 shall, from the time of the sale, be entitled to receive only the net proceeds of the sale, together with any income earned on the proceeds from the beginning of the month next following the date of the receipt by the corporation of the proceeds of the sale, less any taxes on the proceeds and any costs of administration of a trust fund constituted under subsection 47(1) in relation to the constitution of the fund.

(4) Subsections 51(4) to (6) apply in respect of the person who is entitled under subsection (3) to receive the proceeds of a sale of shares under subsection (1) as if the proceeds were a security and the person were a registered holder or owner of the security.

47. (1) The proceeds of a sale by a corporation under subsection 46(1) constitute a trust fund in the hands of the corporation for the benefit of the person entitled under subsection 46(3) to receive the proceeds of the sale, and any such trust fund may be commingled by the corporation with other such trust funds and shall be invested in such manner as may be prescribed.

(2) Reasonable costs of administration of a trust fund referred to in subsection (1) may be deducted from the trust fund and any income earned thereon.

(3) Subject to this section, a corporation may transfer any trust fund referred to in subsection (1), and the administration thereof, to a trust company in Canada registered as such under the laws of Canada or a province, and the corporation is thereupon discharged of all further liability in respect of the trust fund.

(4) A receipt signed by a person entitled under subsection 46(3) to receive the proceeds of a sale that constitute a trust fund under subsection (1) shall be a complete discharge of the corporation and of any trust company to which a trust fund is transferred under subsection (3), in respect of the trust fund and income earned thereon paid to such person.

(5) A trust fund described in subsection (1), together with any income earned thereon, less any taxes thereon and costs of administration, that has not been claimed by a person entitled under subsection 46(3) to receive the proceeds of a sale that constitute the trust fund for a period of ten years after the date of the sale vests in Her Majesty in right of Canada.

(6) Sections 3 to 5 of the Escheats Act apply in respect of a trust fund that vests in Her Majesty in right of Canada under subsection (5).